Saint Thomas’s hospital in London was founded in around 1106 and was named after Thomas Becket who was made a saint in 1173. Becket was an extremely popular saint, who people believed had miraculous healing powers so he was a good choice to name a hospital after. Thomas was born in London in 1118 and became an ordained priest in 1162 and he later became an archbishop. Becket began to excommunicate his opponents in the church and this angered the king, Henry II.
It began when three Archbishops crowned the heir apparent. It was common in medieval times to crown the King’s heir in the lifetime of his father to prevent disputes about the succession after the king’s death. This was in breach of Thomas’s privilege to fulfil this role and so he excommunicated the priests who took his place at the ceremony.
Becket was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral in 1170 by four of the king’s knights who misinterpted the King’s angry words, ‘Who will rid me of this meddlesome priest?’ thinking that it was a direct order to kill Thomas of Canterbury.
The site of St. Thomas’s death (Note the four swords above where Becket was kneeling in prayer) and the marker of his shrine in Canterbury Cathedral
The early medieval hospital was named after Saint Thomas and was run and staffed by Augustinian monks and nuns. The hospital performed three important functions. Hospitality was given to poor travellers and pilgrims, a home was provided for the destitute and aged, and the sick were nursed. Catholics believe that when they treat those who are despised by society they are in reality showing God their love for him. This is based on the teaching of Jesus in Matthew 35-40:
For I was hungry and you gave Me something to eat, I was thirsty and you gave Me something to drink, I was a stranger and you took Me in, I was naked and you clothed Me, I was sick and you looked after Me, I was in prison and you visited Me… Truly I tell you, whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers of Mine, you did for Me.’
In Tudor times the hospital community was shattered by Henry VIII’s policy of the forced dissolution of the monasteries. Thomas Cromwell’s deputy, Richard Layton, visited the ‘bawdy’’ hospital in 1538. The master, Richard Mabott, was accused of selling the hospital’s silver and exacting excessive fees from patients. On 14th January 1540, the hospital was surrendered to the King and the monks were pensioned off.
The City of London petitioned the king to allow the hospital to continue under secular management. The king refused.
In 1538 Henry VIII issued a proclamation that Thomas Becket was to be unsainted, and his shrine in Canterbury cathedral was to be torn down. The Saints grave was broken up and his bones were burnt. Henry felt that as Thomas had been a ‘traitor to his king, and had defied his honour’. To show his contempt for Saint Thomas Henry VIII took a large ruby from the shrine and had it made into a thumb ring. (Weir :2001) The ruby had had been donated to decorate the shrine by Louis VII of France making it a double insult.
For hundreds of years Thomas’ tomb had been the third most important site for pilgrimage in Europe, after Rome and Santiago de la Compostella, in Galicia.
The dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII provoked a crisis in London for the sick and infirm poor men lying begging in the public streets. On June 26th 1553, Letters Patent were issued by King Edward VI (Henry’s son by Jane Seymour) incorporating the three Royal hospitals of Christchurch, Bridewell and St Thomas the Apostle, and transferring to them the estate of the Savoy hospital. The three hospitals were designed to provide a complete service to the destitute: Christchurch for orphans, St Thomas’s for the sick and aged, and Bridewell for the ‘undeserving poor’. When St Thomas’ re-opened, it admitted 250 patients and had a staff led by the hospitaller (£10 p.a.) assisted by a clerk (£10 p.a), a steward (£6 13s p.a.), a butler (£5 p.a.), a cook (£8 p.a.) and six surgeons (£15 p.a.). An apothecary was added to the complement in 1566.
A matron was in charge of ten sisters – one for each of the six general wards and four for the so-called ‘foul’ wards for sufferers of venereal diseases. Sisters were not formally trained and were often recruited from amongst the patients. They were dismissed if they became engaged or married, but otherwise had a good chance of promotion to the job of butler, cook or matron.
The wages were low and were supplemented by perquisites (perks): fuel, candles, or beer- the hospitaller commanded an allowance of one gallon a day. Extra funds could be made by moon-lighting; the porter made money on the side with his own out-patients department for ‘scald-head’ , and the cook was, in 1583, earning extra wages by grave-digging (a reflection on his culinary skills perhaps?).
Patients, if they were able, were expected to pay for their upkeep. But the destitute were also admitted and supplied with smocks, shoes, and bedding. Not all patients were ill for,
Syphilitic Patients 1498 (Mala Franczus, Bart Steber) St. Thomas’s probably gained its reputation as a bawdy’ hospital as it administered to the many prostitutes and their clients in
until the 17th Century, one of the wards was a Nightlayer’s lodgings providing overnight shelter for the homeless. This was the final example of the institution providing ‘hospitality’ in the original sense.
Food consisted of a breakfast of gruel or porridge, a dinner of bread, meat and beer, and a supper of broth. Three pints of ale per person was also allocated.
The regime was strict and those guilty of immorality could be punished at the whipping-post or in the stocks. Those who had acquired venereal disease ‘by immorality’ were punished in the stocks before they were released.
Poppies, which were used to prepare medicinal opium, were found in the rafters, revealing that the roof space was also used as a ‘herb garret’. The attic was large, dry and inaccessible to rats, making it the perfect location for St Thomas’ apothecary to prepare and store medicinal herbs and ingredients.
In 1962, after 100 years of disuse, the garret and operating theatre were opened to the public as the current museum.
The museum consists of:
- The oldest surviving operating theatre in the UK (dating from 1822), used in the days before anaesthetics and antiseptic surgery.
- The herb garret used by the hospital’s apothecary to store and cure herbs used in healing.
- A collection of artefacts revealing the horrors of medicine before the age of science. Includes instruments for cupping, bleeding, trepanning, and childbirth.
- Displays on medieval monastic health care, the history of St Thomas’s, Guy’s Hospital and Evelina Children’s Hospital, Florence Nightingale and nursing, medical and herbal medicine.
Alison weir pg393 2001 Henry 8 king and court
http://oldoperatingtheatre.com assessed 13;34 11/07/17
Pilgrim badge from the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral: 14th Century © Museum of London